IP-EASE (14 Ounces)
Intestinal permeability, “leaky gut”, is a condition of intestinal barrier dysfunction characterized by structural abnormalities, mucus degradation, and defective regulatory mechanisms, namely tight junctions (TJ), which are the predominant gatekeepers that selectively traffic water ions and small molecules between intestinal epithelial cells (paracellular passage). Increased intestinal permeability is associated with several diverse conditions including severe trauma or infection, multiple organ failure, neurodegeneration, obesity, mood disorders, metabolic imbalances (e.g., insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), and particularly autoimmune and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). With increased intestinal permeability, the immune system becomes overreactive due to constant stimulation by undigested macromolecules and bacterial endotoxins which freely access the bloodstream and circulate throughout the body. Dietary and lifestyle factors can damage intestinal barrier structure and function directly through inflammatory mechanisms, or disrupt the balance of healthy bacteria species that serve to maintain intestinal integrity.
- L-Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body, participating in a diverse collection of metabolic processes and supporting the function and proliferation of various immune cells. Key metabolic organs and tissue, including the liver, gut, kidneys, and skeletal muscles rely heavily on glutamine as a substrate, precursor, or fuel for several biological processes. Though not classified as essential, glutamine becomes an essential amino acid during periods of increased stress or catabolic/hypercatabolic states (e.g., infection, critically ill, post-trauma, sepsis, intense/prolonged exercise).
Both the small and large intestines are capable of metabolizing large amounts of glutamine, which is quantitatively more relevant than glucose as an energy substrate. As an essential fuel source, glutamine enhances the survival and proliferation of enterocytes (intestinal cells), preserves intestinal barrier function, protects intestinal tissue in states of digestive stress, and prevents permeability to toxins and pathogens under various conditions of gastrointestinal injury.* Several clinical studies support the use of dietary glutamine in maintaining normal function of the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract, as well as the liver and pancreas.*
The expression of several genes in immune cells is largely dependent on glutamine availability. Among its many functions, glutamine is required for the activation of specific proteins that control immune cell proliferation, it participates in tissue repair processes, plays an essential role in intracellular pathways associated with pathogen recognition, and serves as an energy substrate for white blood cells.* When persistently depleted, as seen with chronic or increased stressors, a large number of metabolic pathways and mechanisms that require glutamine availability are affected, leading to immunosuppression.*
- Acacia Senegal (Arabic Gum) Is a soluble dietary fiber that is fermented in the colon under microbial influence to produce short chain fatty acids. Short chain fatty acids, including acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, perform several functions in the maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune homeostasis. The prebiotic properties of acacia serve to support beneficial bacteria species for a more robust expression of healthful bacterial populations.* Additionally, acacia normalizes gut transit time, eases constipation/diarrhea, and reduces inflammatory immune protein production.*
- Ginger has been used in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine for thousands of years and is regarded for its effects on digestive health among other conditions. Of its known benefits, ginger has shown to improve dyspepsia, reduce damage to the mucosal lining of the digestive tract, stimulate digestion by increasing bile secretions and digestive enzyme activity, increase intestinal motility, and alleviate abdominal pain.* Ginger is also well-known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects.*
- N-Acetyl-Glucosamine (NAG) is a naturally occurring amino sugar found in glycosaminoglycans, which are major structural components of connective tissues and intestinal mucous secretions. The mucous layer of the digestive tract serves to protect the intestinal epithelium from pathogens and harmful bacteria species, while facilitating repair of the intestinal lining and promoting the transit of digested food through the GI tract.*
- Cranberry Extract (Full Spectrum), rich in phenolic bioactives including flavan-3-ols, A-type procyanidins (PACs), anthocyanins, benzoic acid, and ursolic acid and a unique profile of all 6 members of the anthocyanidin family, has shown to alter the composition of intestinal microbiota resulting in improved intestinal, urinary tract, and metabolic health.* Preclinical data supports the use of cranberry extracts for improving ratios of several commensal bacteria species, with notable increases in Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin-degrading bacterium inversely associated with obesity, diabetes, cadiometabolic diseases, and low-grade inflammation.